Good Management Tips for Your Business

Good Management Tips for Your Business

Read on to know the good management tips which can ensure growth and success for your business:

  1. Have a good team: Form a good team.  It should have knowledge of all aspects.  The business has various functions like purchases, sales, marketing, accounting etc.  It is not possible to hire professionals for all the functions since it would turn out to be expensive.  Getting experienced people with knowledge is comparatively cheaper.
  2. Recording transaction: Record every single transaction.  Besides monetary transactions, it is very essential to keep track of events also.  Every single happening like accidents, quality checks etc are to be documented.  This will help in future reference.
  3. Strengths and weakness of competitor: It is all the more important to know the strengths and weaknesses of your competitors.  Do not underestimate them.  Find out their weakness and make it your strength.
  4. Analyze risk: Investing in a business is risky. It is not as easy as using the bitcoin code.  Hence analyze the risk.  If the reward is not as attractive ignore taking high risk.  Also in the starting, it is wise to take low risk.
  5. 5. Innovation: Encourage the team to innovate new things.  This will improve efficiency and quality.  It will result in more elegant product design.  Your overall sales and profit will improve.
  6. Compromise: Decide on what comprises you want to take.  There are few things like putting more hard work and making a few sacrifices.  But when it comes to quality never compromise.
  7. Customer service excellence: Ensure you provide excellent customer service.  It will improve your reputation and brand image.  Handling customer complaints with patience are more important.  Solve the issues and make them leave satisfied.  Never delay.  If there are reasons beyond your control, explain them patiently.  Never promise something which you know very well that you cannot do.  This will lead to a loss of trust.  Losing customer trust is irreparable damage to the business.
  8. Consistency and focus: Always be consistent in quality and performance.  Ensure your team moves in unison towards achieving the goal.  Frame good organizational goals.  Let your whole team know these goals and contribute effectively to achieve them.
  9. Trouble handling: Initially there may be setbacks.  There may be unexpected happenings or losses.  Be prepared mentally.  Face them boldly.  Be strong during days of trouble.  Provide sufficient motivation so that team cheers up and starts working again.  Never lose heart for problems.  It will impair your problem-solving ability.

 

Investing In Cryptocurrencies Is Just Like Becoming A Warrior

Investing In Cryptocurrencies Is Just Like Becoming A Warrior

We have always felt that investing in cryptocurrencies is a very simple and interesting task. It is never really so. Every new beginning has its own intricacies, especially the good and bad. We have to take time and explore the benefits at large and enjoy the way we really live. Becoming a warrior is not at all an easy task. We have to look into many aspects and start doing things one by one. But, once you become the real warrior you wanted to become, the feeling is totally different. You will feel more confident, competent and happy. There is no single fear that can disrupt you at any point in time. You get the confidence to move any hard. But, the process involves a lot of efforts. Let us compare and know more.

As a person, to become a good warrior we need to be very strong and confident. We should have a wide range of mind to be more active and healthy. Same goes with a person wanting to become a good investor. He should be prepared enough to take so many challenges and have a mentality towards any different situations that are bound to occur. We should have a vibrant mind to explore and define different conditions that are bound to occur.

In a warrior’s life, we will have a million times when we are happy after a successful victory and another million times when we get to face hard situations. Same goes in the investment platform too. Life has tedious times when we will have to face failures and other times when we have success stories to make. We will have to take things in a very sportive manner.

We have good platforms and people to train and get the best warriors. What can be done in the case of investment? We have cryptocurrencies and auto trading robots that can encourage living in a good investment world. They can trade on our behalf and help us earn handsome money from our active investments. Check this out to know more. Bitcoin Loophole is just considered one of the best in this regard. Try investing systematically and you will get to know the benefits at large. It gets very interesting and our financial stand becomes very strong enough though. It is a proven fact and there are good examples to be shown.

Know More About The Financial Side Of Franchise Business

Know More About The Financial Side Of Franchise Business

One of the explicit advantages of franchising is that it brings together many different retailers for utilizing a unique trademark while working under a single and simple business concept. This indeed offers many benefits like

  • Creating a general awareness of this specific brand among the population.
  • Customers are satisfied more in a similar pattern for whichever opening they visit.
  • The strength build-up bid by pooled mode of advertising.
  • And above all, the well-organized method of set purchasing.

In addition, the franchise owner himself gains many pros when compared to the normal retailers which includes

  • They do not have to fear about any dull situation happening to this business unless some kind of financial crisis occurs. This is because it is already an established one.
  • Advertising in the name of this well-versed brand keeps your job easy as people readily recognize the brand you are selling and hence, you could assure that you will surely get a reasonable number of visitors or customers to the shop.
  • Also, you can avail the benefits of company advertising and also crowd purchasing.
  • Since this business is analyzed by the experts almost in a daily manner, they could recommend good strategies to excel the existing crisis condition. For a normal retailer, the only technique to handle such a condition is by trial and error method.
  • Moreover, the franchise creates a situation for expansions. If your current franchised business is going well, you could definitely come up with another shop in the area you know and so you could add on to get more profits.
  • Overall, there is a much-reduced risk of operation as there is no need for you to spend for either structuring up a shop or for raw materials except for the initial payment for taking up the venture. This is because it is more like a turnkey operation and that too employing the standardized machinery and other food items. In addition, you get the complete manual assistance for choosing the site.

Choosing the location

For this specific business, this task is very easy as the franchisor would offer the leasehold amount and also advise you about the improvements you should bring about.

Financial Costs Involved

Normally, the franchise needs to pay an initial fund to the franchisor to get the business deal. This deal may cost you above $2500 and can go up to any price depending on the size of the business you are planning to start. This includes all the provisions like visiting their training classes, business notions and so on.

What can AI perform?

When we hear the term Artificial Intelligence (AI), the first pictures which come into our mind are that of supercomputers and high-end machines which eliminate may human responsibilities in industrial and routine activities.  The application of AI is stretched far beyond that, from a needlepoint to a tower, it is that one product of computer science which can transform any field into smart and human-like intelligent.  It is still in its infancy stage, but is making ripples as huge as waves wherever it is applied, and is proving to be the real cognitive power which can run any business. What can AI perform? Practically everything that a human brain can do except for our feelings! Better to be interpreted as human brain functioning minus human emotions is AI, capable of being used for learning, analyzing, reasoning, decision-making, predicting, visual perception, encryption etc.  The stronger AI is the general type which can be used in devices to handle activities involving solutions to problems on a theoretical basis, but it still awaits proper budding. The commonly used one has applied AI, capable of running independent tasks like driving, browser keyword prediction, performing tests and evaluation etc. Our very own stock market trading robot Bitcoin Trader is the ideal example for explaining the success of AI. Schooling AI into machines The incorporation of AI into individual machines and units of bigger devices to mimic the roles of the human brain, thereby making them store, analyze and interpret data patterns and use them to predict and modify existing and future actions. This is superficially termed as machine learning. The power of artificial intelligence to transform business The application of machine learning and AI in business may seem to be demanding investment-heavy technology and preparation, but once the smart introduction is achieved, the positive impacts outweigh the hurdles you crossed. Cost-effectiveness by reducing costs of operation, maintenance and expansion Reduced effort and easy planning to incorporate adjustments and improvements to replace shortcomings. Reduction in time of operation and requirement of manual labor Improving efficiency, productivity, revenue and profit Eliminating human errors, bias and negative influence from environment and conflicts. Better management since machines and devices are designed to be controlled, while managing human workforce is often the biggest task for a business, with often a separate department created for the same. When all these factors go on the upward slope, the business eventually grows owing to higher customer satisfaction, reputation and public trust in the business.

8th Battalion Royal Sussex Regiment

Researching a man from this battalion? See my WW1 Research page.

The 8th Battalion Royal Sussex Regiment were formed at Chichester in September 1914 as part of Kitchener ‘s Army. Initial volunteers were from all over Sussex , and tended to be older men in the their late 20s and early to mid 30s. The battalion was under strength when it went to Colchester in October 1914 to join 54th Brigade, 18th (Eastern) Division. Further recruits were drawn from the London area at this time, and it was several months before uniforms and equipment arrived. On 4th February 1915 it became the Pioneer Battalion of 18th (Eastern) Division, a role it would keep for the remainder of the war. In May 1915 the battalion moved to Salisbury Plain, and then crossed to France on 24th July 1915.The Battalion was meant to serve the Western Front and mainly constituted the men who worked as laborers and a photo has been going the rounds on the internet which shows the Battalion stationed in Belgium during the Third Battle of Ypres. However, identifying a person in this photo is like picking out the best-reviewed software in Top 10 Crypto Robots.

The 8th Battalion moved to the Somme front, and took over trenches in the Mametz-Montauban sector. Their first casualty was Private James Chandler, from West Wittering , who died of wounds on 25th August 1915, during the first tour of the trenches. They remained in this quiet sector until the Battle of the Somme , taking part in the attack on Montauban on 1st July 1916. During the subsequent fighting for Trônes Wood on 13th/14th July, they played a prominent role in the battle. They also fought in the capture of Thiepval on 26th September, and at Regina Trench in October.

The battalion stayed on the Somme until the Spring of 1917, when it moved to the Arras front. Here it took part in the fighting on the Hindenburg Line at Héninel, and at Chérisy on 3rd May. It then moved to Flanders , to take part in the Third Battle of Ypres, and fought along the Menin Road.

In the Spring of 1918 the battalion returned to the Somme front, and took part in the March 1918 offensive. It remained in the line opposite Albert until the summer, when on 8th August 1918 it took part in the attack along the Morlancourt Ridge. Fighting its way back across the old Somme battlefields, it was once again in action at Trônes Wood in late August, where it fought the Prussian Guard. Reaching the Hindenburg Line in September, it took part in the attack on the St Quentin Canal, and fought its final battle on the Sambre Canal on 4th November 1918.

On 11th November 1918 the battalion was near Le Cateau. Here the battalion remained until the New Year, all ranks being given educational and recreation training, and were employed on salvage work on the old battlefields. Demobilisation began on 10th December 1918, and the battalion was disbanded in March 1919.

During the war 15 officers and 215 men had died on active service with the 8th Battalion Royal Sussex Regiment.

BATTLE HONOURS

 1916

BATTLES OF THE SOMME

1 – 8 July                     Battle of Albert
14-17 July                    Battle of Bazentin Ridge
14 July                         Capture of Trones Wood
19-21 July                    Battle of Delville Wood
26-28 September         Battle of Thiepval Ridge
1-5 October, 17
October – 11
November                    Battle of the Ancre Heights
30 September –
5 October                    Capture of the Schwaben Redoubt
21 October                  Capture of Regina Trench
13-18 November         Battle of the Ancre

1917

 16 January –
13 March                     Operations on the Ancre
17-18 February            Miraumont [Boom Ravine]
10 March                     Capture of Irles
14-20 March                German Retreat to the Hindenburg Line

BATTLES OF ARRAS

3 & 4 May                   Third Battle of the Scarpe

BATTLES OF YPRES

31 July                         Battle of Pilckem Ridge
10 August                    Inverness Copse
16 & 17 August            Battle of Langemarck
12 October                  First Battle of Passchendaele
22 October                  Capture of Poelcappelle
5 – 10 November         Second Battle of Passchendaele

1918

 FIRST BATTLES OF THE SOMME

21-23 March                Battle of St Quentin
4 April                          Battle of the Avre
25 & 25 April               Villers-Bretonneux

THE ADVANCE TO VICTORY

 8 & 9 August                Battle of Amiens

SECOND BATTLES OF THE SOMME

21-23 August               Battle of Albert
23 August                     Capture of Usna and Tara Hills
27 August                     Capture of Trones Wood
31 August –
3 September                 Second Battle of Bapaume

BATTLES OF THE HINDENBURG LINE

18 September               Battle of Epéphy
29 September –
1 October                    Battle of the St Quentin Canal

THE FINAL ADVANCE IN PICARDY

20-26 October             Battle of the Selle
4 November                 Battle of the Sambre

1/5th Battalion Royal Sussex Regiment (Cinque Ports)

Researching a man from this battalion? See my WW1 Research page.

  The 5th Battalion Royal Sussex Regiment (Cinque Ports) was formed on 1st April 1908 as part of the newly constituted Territorial Force (TF). The territorial force was a volunteering force established by Mr. Richard Haldane, the then Secretary of War for the United Kingdom. The actual status of TF was not like what Crypto CFD Trader enjoys now among the high profile trading robots. The force was often underlooked as a low strength organization by other military forces. At this time the battalion had eight locally recruited companies, all of whom had their own Drill Halls:

A Company: Hastings
B Company: Battle
C Company: Ticehurst
D Company: Lewes
E Company: Rye
F Company: Uckfield
G Company: Crowborough
H Company: Ore

  Recruits joined for periods of four years, attending regular meetings at the local company Drill Hall, and the battalion as a whole had an annual Summer camp (usually in August).

  Regimental numbers began at ‘1’ when the 5th Battalion was formed in 1908, and each man either had a ‘TF’ or ‘5’ prefix to his number. This was usually included in official records, such as muster rolls and casualty lists, and often later engraved on his war medals.

  When the war broke out in August 1914 the battalion was assembled and became Army Troops in the Home Counties Division TF. In early 1915 it was posted for duty at the Tower of London. About this time several composite battalions of the Cinque Ports were formed. The original battalion was thereafter known as the 1/5th, with two reserve units formed later – the 2/5th and 3/5th. These supplied drafts to the 1/5th Bn in France, and later personnel to several battalions of the regiment.

  In 1914 the 1/5th were also re-organised into four companies as follows:

A (Hastings) & E (Rye) became A Company

B (Battle) & F (Uckfield) became B Company

C (Ticehurst) & D (Lewes) became C Company

G (Crowborough) & H (Ore) became D Company

  The battalion crossed to France on SS ‘Pancras’ and landed at Boulogne on 18th February 1915.

  The 1/5th were commanded by Lieutenant Colonel F.G.Langham VD from 1914 until 1917.

  On 21st February it was posted to the 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, in which the 2nd Bn Royal Sussex Regiment was also serving. On 20th August 1915 it became the Pioneer Battalion of the 48th (South Midland) Division and joined them on the Somme at Hebuterne.

  As pioneers each men wore a brass badge on each collar in the form of a crossed rifle and pick.

  In 1916 the son of the commanding officer, Captain C.R.Langham (killed in 1917), formed a divisional Scouts and Snipers section known as ‘Langham’s Scouts’, from personnel in the 1/5th Bn. It served with the division for the rest of the war.

  In 1917 each man still serving with the battalion was given a new regimental number as part of an overall re-numbering in the Territorial Force. These numbers were between 240001 and 265000.

  In November 1917 the battalion went with the division to Italy, and in November 1918 was in Austria, east of Trent. It returned to England in 1919.

Battles and Engagements

1915

Battle of Aubers Ridge: 9 May 

1916

Battles of the Somme

Battle of Bazentin Ridge: 15-17 July
Capture of Ovillers: 17 July
Battle of Pozičres Ridge: 23-27 July & 13-28 August
Battle of the Ancre Heights: 3 -11 November
Battle of the Ancre: 13-18 November

1917

German Retreat to the Hindenburg Line: 14 March – 5 April
Occupation of Peronne: 18 March

Battle of Ypres (Third Ypres)

Battle of Langemarck: 16-18 August
Battle of Polygon Wood: 28 September – 3 October
Battle of Broodseinde: 4 October
Battle of Poelcapelle: 9 October

1918

Battle of the Piave

The Fighting on the Asiago Plateau: 15 – 16 June

Battle of Vittorio Veneto

The Fighting in the Val d’Assa: 1 – 4 November

SOMME: COURCELETTE

Battleground Europe series – Somme: Combles

Pen & Sword Books 1998

ISBN 0850525926  £9.95

Courcelette was Canada’s main battlefield on the Somme in 1916; 8,500 Canadian soldiers died here between September and November 1916. In total more than 24,000 Canadians became casualties here. All four Canadian Divisions fought at Courcelette; along with many famous Canadian figures: among them – Canon Frederick Scott, Robert Service and Talbot Papineau.

Part of the ever-popular ‘Battleground Europe’ series, this in-depth guide to the Courcelette battlefield covers all the major actions from the capture of the village to the attacks on Regina Trench and Desire Trench. Many of the photographs included in the book have not appeared in print before and there is a harrowing eyewitness account of the attack on the Sugar Refinery by a veteran of the 21st Battalion Canadian Infantry. The books in the series explain about the smallest of attacks shouldered by the artillery troops of the British Army and the courageous defense battles fought by the German soldiers along with their strong lines and powerful war machinery. No wonder that Fintech LTD uses this never-drying attitude of the World War heroes in accomplishing their projects.

The guide section includes suggested routes both by car and on foot, and there is comprehensive information about the cemeteries and memorials connected with the fighting at Courcelette. The Armourer Magazine highly recommended this book.

Extracts from Amazon Reviews:

” A great book, like pretty much all of those in the Battleground Europe series, really! Packed with detail, good maps, good pictures, and flowing text, and as its Paul Reed, you can be sure that its been well researched, and very accurate. I’d single this book out as being indispensable if you get the chance to go to the Somme, and just try some of the tours advised in the back- excellent stuff!” howes77 from UK, January 28, 2005

” Another excellent addition to the Battleground series, detailing the Battle of Flers – Courcelette in Sept 1916. Focuses on the efforts of the Canadian divisions who bore the brunt of this sector of the Somme battle which had developed into a war of attrition. Also covers the first major deployment of tanks in the War. Fine use of photographs and maps to take the reader step by step through the dreadful fighting that ensued. It also identifies individual acts of bravery that is quite humbling to a modern day reader cocooned from the harsh realities of war.” Peter Wilding, Warwickshire, England, March 1, 2001

“This excellent Pen and Sword series is enhanced by an excellent account of the Canadian Corp engagements at Courcelette during the late autumn months of 1916. The Canadians fought in some of the worse terrain during September; October and November 1916 gaining much ground around the village of Courcelette and the awful German trench system of which Regina Trench was the longest stretch of single trench which existed on the Western Front at that time. The book gives very good accounts of what happened during those months. It is also a great human account too; many stories are told of heroism, fighting against impossible odds across heavily cratered ground in order to clear the enemy defences before the winter finally brought the battles to an end.

I cannot rate this book too highly for it is well researched with numerous photographs of the battlefield as it was in 1916, and also how it looked during the post war years. Moreover; it is also useful for the battlefield visitor with numerous tours set out in detail with recommended visits. A worthy memorial too for the many Canadian soldiers who fought and died on the Somme and whose remains were never recovered.” eredfearn2 from Middlesbrough, Cleveland United Kingdom, December 2, 2004

CLASSIC MEMOIRS OF WW1

 

War stories are always thrilling and give a spine-chilling experience for the readers, irrespective of the ending. Whether they are historical achievements, transitions or failure of war techniques, war heroes are literally superheroes. The thrill and spirit of reading a first party encounter of a war scene from the words of the soldier itself shoot sky-high and is unparalleled in creating war memoirs. We belong to the modern era of Crypto VIP Club and getting the warring opportunity to bookmark such experiences during the World Wars simply make the heroes immortal. There are literally hundreds of these and one could devote an entire web site to them (now there’s an idea!), but here I have selected a sample of them that will prove particularly useful in visiting the battlefields and getting more out of your visit both before you go and once you return.

Note this is a personal choice, and memoirs for Commonwealth soldiers will appear in a separate listing.

MEMOIRS – OFFICERS

Behrend, Arthur – As From Kemmel Hill (Eyre & Spottiswoode 1963)

– Behrend started the war in the infantry and fought at Gallipoli (the subject of an earlier book). In 1917 he transferred to the RGA and served with them on the Western Front until the end of the conflict. A superb account of life in a Siege battery and is unrivalled almost in that respect. Sadly out of print and only available on the second-hand market.

Blunden, Edmund – Undertones of War (numerous editions)

– The author served with the 11th Royal Sussex Regiment in France from 1916. The book is a fine memoir from the point of view of a young officer, with good descriptions of the Somme and Ypres. It also includes some of Blunden’s poetry. The most recent edition was by Penguin in 2001.

Chapman, Guy – A Passionate Prodigality (Ivor Nicholson & Watson Ltd 1933)

– The author served with the 13th Royal Fusiliers and on the Staff of 37th Division from 1915. Well written, it is something of a forgotten memoir of WW1. There were recent editions in the 1970s and 1980s. Now of print and available on the second-hand market.

Douie, Charles – The Weary Road (John Murray 1929)

– Douie served with the 1st Dorsets, and much of the book is about the Somme. Beautifully written and carefully constructed, this is essential reading. Out of print, although there was a modern edition in the 1980s/90s.

Edmonds, Charles – A Subaltern’s War (Peter Davies 1929)

– The author is Charles Carrington, who served with the Royal Warwicks on the Somme and Passchendaele. A superb account of a young platoon commander. Out of print, there were several later editions, but easily available on the second-hand market.

Gordon, Huntley – The Unreturning Army (Dent 1967)

– Huntley Gordon fought as an officer in 112th RFA at Messines and Third Ypres. This is a well written memoir, and one easy to follow on the battlefields today. Out of print, but available on the second-hand market.

Graves, Robert – Goodbye to All That (various editions)

– First published in the 1920s, Graves’ book also ranks as one of the classic Great War accounts. He first served with the Welsh Regiment at Loos, and then Royal Welsh Fusiliers on the Somme until wounded at High Wood. Modern paperback editions widely available and still in print.

Greenwell, Graham H. – An Infant in Arms (Allen Lane 1972)

– Based on the author’s letters and diary, the book follows his service with 1/4th Oxs & Bucks Light Infantry on the Western Front and Italy. Out of print, but available on the second-hand market.

Hutchison, G.S. – Warrior (Hutchinson c.1930s)

– ‘Hutchie’ wrote a large number of books based on his war experiences, this being the best of them. He began the war as an officer in the Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders, then fought with the MGC commanding a MG battalion by 1918. Out of print, but available on the second-hand market.

Mellersh, H.E.L. – Schoolboy Into War (William Kimber 1978)

– Mellersh was a subaltern with the 2nd East Lancs Regt (8th Division) on the Somme and in 1918. The book is a good description of a typical young officer, and is particularly good for the Somme area. Now long out of print, but available on the second-hand market.

Nettleton, John – The Anger of the Guns (William Kimber 1979)

– Nettleton was commissioned from the Artist’s Rifles into the Rifle Brigade, and served with them at Third Ypres and the battles of 1918. He was caught on film by an official cinematographer, and these photos appear in the book. Out of print, but available on the second-hand market.

Pollard, A.O. – Fire-Eater: The Memoirs of a VC (Hutchinson c.1930)

– Pollard was awarded the VC, MC and DCM during the Great War while serving with 1st HAC. The book covers the fighting at Ypres in 1915, Somme and Arras, where Pollard got his VC. Pollard loved the war – he was never happier than when he was in No Man’s Land with a SMLE hunting Germans! Sadly long out of print and only available on the second-hand market.

Rees, R.T. – A Schoolmaster at War (Haycock Press c.1920s)

– Major Rees served with 9th Loyal North Lancs in France and Flanders from 1915 until he lost an arm in April 1918. Rare account of the ‘quiet’ period on Vimy Ridge in 1916 and a VC action at Broadmarsh Crater. Out of print and only available on the second-hand market. 

Rodgerson, Sidney – Twelve Days (Arthur Barker 1933)

– This unique book chronicles twelve days in the life of a company commander in the 2nd West Yorks at the end of the battle of the Somme in minute detail. Sadly out of print, there was a modern edition in the 1990s, but is available on the second-hand market.

Sassoon, Siegfried – Memoirs of An Infantry Officer (various editions)

– One of the classic memoirs of the Great War. Starting with Memoirs of a Fox Hunting Man, this volume begins on the Somme front and charts Sassoon’s journey from the 1916 battle to Arras and the fighting in 1918. Widely available and still in print.

Talbot Kelly, R.B. – A Subaltern’s Odyssey (William Kimber 1980)

– Talbot Kelly was a gunner officer in the 9th (Scottish) Division, and the book chronicles his experiences from Loos to the Somme to Arras and Third Ypres. Illustrated with his own personal photos and drawings. Out of print, but available on the second-hand market.

Walkington, M.L. – Twice in a Lifetime (Samson Books 1980)

– The author served in 1914 with the 16th Londons (Queen’s Westminsters) and took part in the Christmas Truce. He was then commissioned into the Machine Gun Corps and served with 8th Division. Out of print, but occasionally available on the second-hand market.

MEMOIRS – ORDINARY SOLDIERS

Ashurst, George – My Bit (Crowood Press 1987)

– The author served with 1st Lancashire Fusiliers at Gallipoli and on the Western Front. Edited by Richard Holmes, there was a paperback edition, but the book is now out of print.

Clapham, H.S. – Mud and Khaki (Hutchinson c.1930s)

– Clapham fought with 1st Honourable Artillery Company on the Western Front, and this book is his story of the fighting around Ypres in 1915. Excellent description of this period, with much detail about life in the city. Out of print, but available on the second-hand market.

Coppard, George – With A Machine-Gun to Cambrai (various editions)

– Coppard enlisted in the 6th Queens and then served with the Machine Gun Corps until wounded at Cambrai in 1917. Originally published by the IWM in the 1970s, there was a paperback edition by Sutton in 2001.

Read, I.L. – Of Those we Loved (Pentland Press 1994)

– Read started as a private soldier with the 7th Bn Leicestershire Regiment and served with them until he was commissioned in the Royal Sussex Regiment in 1918. Illustrated with his personal drawings. Out of print, but widely available from specialist military book dealers.

Richards, Frank – Old Soldier’s Never Die (various editions)

– First published in the 1920s, Frank Richards classic account was one of the early books written from the point of view of an ordinary soldier. Richards served with 2nd Royal Welsh Fusiliers from August 1914, and fought in almost every major battle, being awarded the DCM and MM along the way. Essential reading. Modern editions easily available.

Tucker, John F. – Johnny Get Your Gun (William Kimber 1978)

– Tucker fought with the 13th Londons (Kensingtons) from 1915, and the book is particularly strong on the Somme fighting and at Arras. Out of print and only available on the second-hand market.

Roeux 1917

Roeux 1917

Roeux was a small village alongside the Arras-Douai railway line, with a large agricultural chemical works. The British advance stopped short of it on 9th April 1917, and it was the scene of bitter fighting there after, particularly in and around the Chemical Works. The 34th and 51st (Highland) Divisions were heavily involved here in April 1917.

The ruins of the Chemical Works were still visible until around 1990, when houses and a shop were built on them. There are several cemeteries around the village, and a huge German bunker (above, and below in 1985) in Rue Dumont Eugene.

Roeux was an important point of German defense and the British forces faced many difficulties to enter the village due to the Arras-Douai railway line and the River Scarpe. The northern side which included the chemical Works was attacked by the 51st Division and the Western side of Roeux which included buildings was attacked by the 37th Division. The attack opened up lines on the slopes of the Greenland Hill.

The village of Fampoux was first attacked on the first day to enter the Roeux in a planned Infantry attack. The plan faced a setback due to bad weather conditions and poor visibility which also led to the withdrawal of the planned artillery attack bombardment on Greenland Hill. The resulting plan was detrimental to the Chemical Works which came under the Infantry attack instead of the planned spots. The first and second attacks on Reoux were called failures, probably due to the lack of preparation in the bad weather and hurrying of plans to breach the strong German embankments. In every strategic battle, planning is essential for success, whether it is in the battlefield armed by heavy machinery or the trading field where you are armed by Carbon FX.

Finally, the third attack by the 51st Division proved to be successful at least to certain extent as the British troops captured the western region, mainly the outskirts. The counterattacks and defence of the German artillery unit and heavy machinery were too strong for the British soldiers on the muddy land. The next battle was forged by the 34th and 37th Divisions jointly to the north of the railway line, again resisted by the Germans. The attacks on various frontiers of Reoux continued till May 16 and ended on May 17 after numerous single attempts and combined attempts by the British Infantry Brigades.

Researching someone who fought at Arras? Visit my WW1 Research Page.

Email – Paul Reed

ARRAS: POINT DU JOUR DISCOVERY OF REMAINS JUNE 2001

The grave at Point du Jour (İDaily Mirror Newspapers)

This article is some personal thoughts on this matter, which attracted a great deal of press interest in 2001, and was rekindled with the recent BBC2 TV programme ‘Body Hunt’ which showed some of the follow up work by the Ministry of Defence (MOD) and Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC). The photo is taken from a ‘Daily Mirror’ article, but I suspect is actually one made by the Arras Archeological Service. The article reflects my opinion alone, but is based on a wide variety of sources.

The Point du Jour is a piece of high ground north-east of Arras which formed part of the Brown Line objectives of 34th Division on 9th April 1917, the opening day of the Battle of Arras. It was captured that day by units of 101st Brigade; 10th Lincolns (Grimsby Chums) and 15th Royal Scots among them. The position was consolidated, and overlooked the neighbouring village of Gavrelle. Fighting for that area was conducted by the 63rd (Royal Naval) Division in late April, then the Pals battalions of 31st Division in May.The final day of battle was on May 17 in the continuation which didn’t give much gain to the British troops. Again a short battle was launched on 5th June which finally fixed the line a little farther. Sometimes, short-term actions give you more advantage than long-term raging action and this is the reason behind the success of the Tesler App. Although Gavrelle was captured, the line never moved much beyond here that year, and fighting returned in March 1918 when the German breakthrough was stopped by 56th (London) Division only a few hundred yards short of Point du Jour. There was further action in August when Gavrelle was retaken.

It can be seen that even in this tiny part of the Arras battlefield there was a great deal of fighting, and a large number of units which served here. Common to most parts of this battlefield, there are few cemeteries – the majority of soldiers who fell at Arras are commemorated on the Arras Memorial and have no known grave. Following the war the land was reclaimed, trenches filled in and it returned to its pre-war use as farmland. the 9th (Scottish) Division who fought in the area to the south on 9th April erected their divisional memorial here, and many years later, in the 1980s, the main Arras-Douai road was expanded to act as a feeder to the nearby A1 motorway. The memorial was placed in an island, and the nearby Point du Jour CWGC Cemetery (made permanent in the 1920s) was built round, and now stood back from the road. Sometime in 2000, the farmland north of the Douai road was sold to developers and the BWM car company proposed to build a large factory on the site. Work for the foundations of this began in the Spring of 2001, and it was during this that the Arras Archeological Service was called in following the discovery of human remains.

Alain Jacques and his colleagues probably thought they might find a few bodies, but work un-earthed a complete mass grave of twenty soldiers, buried in a line (see photo above). They had all been properly buried, and as was common practice equipment and helmets had been removed; with a couple of exceptions. Jacques later said,

Can you imagine the friendship and dedication of those who went about laying down the remains in this way? To go and get a leg and position it in the line – what a remarkable act. They must have died within hours of each other.(1)

A lot was made of the fact that they had died ‘with their boots on’, but again it was common practice to do this – at least it appears so from interviews with veterans and other first hand accounts. While battle injuries are obvious on some bodies, on others there appears little sign of how they died. Some unit insignia was discovered with the remains, three or four shoulder titles of the Lincolnshire Regiment. No identification disks were found; official ones, made of compressed fibre, would have perished anyway and while wearing the aluminium ‘French’ style was common in 1917, none were discovered.

Research immediately showed that it was the 10th Lincolns (Grimsby Chums) who had served here, and press speculation concluded that this was a mass grave from that unit. This was further enforced by the statement in some papers that twenty-four men from the unit had died on 9th April, and that this twenty accounted for those missing. We shall look at that statement in due course. What is clear is that the association with 10th Lincolns is speculation. As we have seen a large number of units served in this area, and as only a small number of unit titles were found, it is impossible to be conclusive about the bodies with nothing. However, having said that Operation Orders for Arras often demanded that regimental titles be removed before the attack, in some cases along with ID or ‘dog’ tags(2). At best the connection with the Lincolns could be called circumstantial, but that there is such a connection might be supported by further research.

Assuming that this is a grave of 10th Lincolns, what might we make of the statement that these burials account for the missing of that unit? It is certainly true that according to Soldiers Died in the Great War (SWD), twenty-four men died on 9th April 1917. However, what is often overlooked, and is confirmed in Peter Bryant’s history of the battalion (3), is that following the capture of this position, 10th Lincolns remained here until April 14th, and that during this period in fact the battalion lost forty men killed according to SWD. Another factor overlooked is that not only did forty Other Ranks die, but in addition there was one fatal officer casualty. This was Lieutenant Wynard Fleetwood Cocks. Cocks was originally commissioned in the 3rd Lincolns, and attached to the 10th. In fact he is recorded on the CWGC Debt of Honour register as 3rd, which is why I suspect even MOD have overlooked him. However, his death is confirmed in Bryant and the unit’s War Diary. One officer later wrote,

… a zig-zag pathway through the wire was found. It was here that Cocks was mortally wounded, and he died propped up against the enemy wire pickets while trying to smoke his pipe, and encouraging his men to push on – a very fitting death for a very gallant gentleman, beloved by all who knew him.(4)

Wynard Cocks was the son of Mrs F.A.Cocks of Jesmond, Ryde, Isle of Wight. He was age 25 when he died of wounds on 9th April 1917. He has no known grave and is commemorated on the Arras Memorial.

Given this evidence – look again at the photo above. While the majority of burials are close together – Alain Jacques felt they were actually ‘arm in arm’ – the one on the extreme right is slightly apart from the others, with his arms by his side. This distance, although slight, might perhaps be intentional. Could it indicate that this soldier was something apart from the others – perhaps an officer? If so, and if this is the Lincolns, he must be Lieutenant Cocks. Nothing in any of the reports I have seen so far, or in the BBC programme made even a hint at this. Cocks seems to have been overlooked. Forensic evidence might also confirm the age, and given his social background, one might not suspect the same level of under-nourishment, or bone changes due to physical labour, that one could expect to see with a working class soldier.

As previously stated, the 10th Lincolns lost 40 Other Ranks up to 14th April, 24 of them on the 9th. Of these 11 have graves, and 28 are on the Arras Memorial. For one man, there is no trace: Private George Bedgood, who died on the 9th (he does not appear in the CWGC Debt of Honour register). For the casualties on 9th April 1917, 19 are on the Arras Memorial and four have graves.

Weather conditions during the battle were harsh, and Bryant’s history records that several men died of exposure. At one point they came under a gas attack, and several were killed in this. These statements seem to further support that these burials are from 10th Lincolns; the lack of physical damage to the bodies would be consistent with gas and weather related deaths, and perhaps there might be some trace of this from a forensic point of view? This appears to be another factor overlooked by MOD.

In conclusion, there is a weight of circumstantial evidence to suggest that the remains found at the Point du Jour are of men from 10th Lincolns, including one of their officers. The CWGC will rebury them all at Point du Jour cemetery sometime in 2002. A MOD case conference, filmed for the ‘Body Hunt’ programme, indicated that they felt there was nothing to ensure anything more than an ‘unknown soldier’ headstone would be erected for each man. No names it seems; but no regimental details? For a unit like the Chums that seems a sad ending to a tragic tale.

Sources

(1) From ‘Grimsby Chums are found in war grave’, The Times 20th June 2001.
(2) I have seen such orders in the 14th (Light) Division war diaries, for example, in PRO WO95.
(3) Bryant, Peter – Grimsby Chums: The Story of the 10th Lincolnshires in the Great War (Humberside County Council 1990)
(4) ibid. p.92-94.

Other Sources

Chapman, Peter – Grimsby’s Own: The Story of the Chums (Grimsby Evening Telegraph 1991)
Falls, Cyril – Military Operations France & Flanders 1917 Vol I (HMSO 1940, reptrinted 1992)
Simpson, C.R. (Ed) – The History of the Lincolnshire Regiment 1914-1918 (Medici Society 1931)